Transportation of Dangerous Goods; Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) contains important information about physical and chemical properties of substances, including health and safety measures. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provides health and safety data to the buyer of dangerous chemicals. It is designed to provide adequate information to assess the risks of handling the substance and take appropriate safety measures and follow relevant procedures. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) for dangerous goods containing liquids are requested from the manufacturer or consignor. The report must be updated in the last 2 years.
6 Composite Packaging
0 Light Gauge Metal Packaging
C Natural Wood
F Reconstituted Wood
M Paper, Multi–wall
N Metal other than Steel or Aluminum
P Glass Porcelain, Stoneware
UN 1648 Acetonitrile 6.1 I
Name of the Substance
Class of the Substance
Type of Package
Date of Manufacture
Certifying Agency and Number
Country of Manufacture
4C1/X30/S/91 US/BS809 u n
Un : All goods classified as dangerous goods are described with a UN number
4 : Type of Container
C1 : Material of Construction
X : Packing Group
30 : Maximum Gross Mass in kg
S : Type of Substance
91 : Year of Manufacture
US : Country of Manufacture
BS : Certifying Agency
809 : Number of Certifying Agency
•VEHICLES USED FOR ROAD TRANSPORT
•VEHICLES USED FOR MARITIME TRANSPORT
•VEHICLES USED FOR RAIL TRANSPORT
• OPEN VEHICLES
-Vehicles that have at least one side open.
-They must have protective containers to carry the substances and not be affected by weather.
•CURTAIN SIDE VEHICLES
-Used to transport packed dangerous goods.
-Vehicle’s load compartment must be water- and rain-tight.
-Interior of the vehicle should not be affected by physical factors.
-These vehicles are used for transporting dangerous goods that may heat up and emit heat during transportation, which may cause spontaneous combustion.
-These vehicles are also suitable for transporting materials with low flash points.
-They can have a single compartment or as much as nine compartments.
-They can be made from aluminum or stainless steel. Thickness ranges from 3 to 4,5 millimeters.
-Tankers are manufactured with different types and properties based on the type of cargo they will transport.
-Tankers are also classified based on their shapes.
•TANKERS BASED ON INTENDED USE
-Pressurized suction tankers
-Single compartment tankers
•FIXED TANKERS -These have a capacity of at least 1000 liters and the container is fixed onto the vehicle.
-Loading and unloading are made with the vehicle’s own equipment.
-Container is demountable, which allows independent loading and unloading to and from containers.
-Containers can be removed from the tow and used as a fixed tank.
-These are manufactured to resist high pressures.
-They generally carry substances such as LPG and LNG.
-They are resistant to external impacts.
•PRESSURIZED SUCTION TANKERS
-There are systems that create high pressure inside the container.
-These systems increase the pressure inside the container which creates suction to fill the container with the substance to be transported.
-The process is reversed for unloading.
-These are weaker and more sensitive tankers compared to pressurized ones.
-They are not suitable for carrying high-risk substances.
-Valves that are closed on impact are installed in order to prevent leakage in the event of an accident.
•SINGLE COMPARTMENT TANKERS
-These are designed to carry a single substance.
-Substances that pose a high risk if carried with another substance must be transported with these tankers.
-Ambient temperature and condensation point of the substance must be taken into consideration when loading.
-These tankers have 2 to 9 compartments.
-They are suitable for transporting multiple substances at once.
-Separate loading and unloading systems are installed for each compartment.
-Compartment walls must be pressure resistant and insulated.
-D-shape tanker is another multi-compartment tanker. They are designed by taking tunnels and underpasses into account.
•TANKERS BASED ON SHAPE
•TANKERS BASED ON PRESSURE RESISTANCE
₋Tankers resistant to 4,10,15 or 20 bar pressure
-They allow the cargo to stay still during transport.
-They have a maximum capacity of 450 liters.
-Inflammable liquids and gases and other liquids are carried in these containers.
-MEGC containers are used for carrying Class 2 gases.
-They are suitable for carrying different types of gases as they have multiple compartments.
-They must be insulated against the risk of overheating.
•DRY CARGO SHIPS
-These ships carry dangerous bulk substances.
-Different types of dangerous goods to be carried on the same ship must be compatible to avoid possible reactions between them.
-Incompatible goods must be segregated with a suitable separator.
-These ships are used to carry packaged dangerous goods.
•Bulk and packaged cargo are carried in Type G and other wagons with varying properties.
•Liquids and bulk dangerous goods are carried in Type Z wagons.
•Oil and petroleum products, chemicals and other similar dangerous goods are carried in silo wagons.
•Dangerous goods wagons are manufactured with carbon alloys or stainless steel.
•Chemical tank wagons are insulated and temperature-controlled wagons.
•D International Transport Company receives 5 tons of carbide to be carried from İzmir to France. Product is loaded to an open vehicle. It rains during transportation. Then the product and the vehicle start to burn.
-Please elaborate if the operation described in this case is carried out correctly and specify the problems that may arise from this operation.
•LIABILITIES OF THE DRIVER
•LIABILITIES OF THE CONSIGNOR
•LIABILITIES OF THE PACKER
•LIABILITIES OF THE LOADER
•LIABILITIES OF THE FILLER
•LIABILITIES OF THE CARRIER
•LIABILITIES OF THE CONSIGNEE
Driver is responsible for inspecting the equipment installed in the vehicle.
Driver must notify the company officials if they discover any defects or omissions.
Driver must know how to use fire extinguishers.
Driver must never open the packages during transport for any reason whatsoever.
Driver must never get in the vehicle with lighters or metals that can generate sparks.
Driver must avoid parking in residential areas unless it’s absolutely necessary.
Driver must not leave the vehicle in the event of accidents or failure; otherwise they must have a company official attend the vehicle.
Driver must check if the vehicle is clean and refuse loading if the vehicle is not clean.
Engine must be turned off during loading / unloading.
Loading area must be cleaned before loading.
Mixed / separate loading rules must be observed.
Packages shall never be opened at any stage of transport.
Damaged packages shall not be loaded.
Exposed dangerous goods shall not be loaded.
Empty packages must be marked and labeled.
Do not enter the loading area with open flame.
Do not smoke in loading / unloading area.
Driver must ensure safety of the cargo and comply with shipping ton.
Do not exceed maximum loading capacity.
Deliver the goods for carriage in accordance with ADR.
Obtain necessary authorization from the ministry.
Furnish the carrier with written instructions and documents necessary for carriage.
Comply with the requirements on the means of dispatch and forwarding restrictions, ensure that the vehicle is operated in accordance with the type of cargo.
Packer must pack the goods in accordance with ADR, pay attention to marking and labeling of the packages.
Packer must observe packing and mixed packing rules.
Loader must check whether the packages are damaged before delivering packed dangerous goods or uncleaned empty packages to the carrier.
Loader must comply with applicable regulations and rules for loading and handling dangerous goods.
Loader must load dangerous goods only if the requirements of ADR are met.
Loader must refuse loading damaged packages or packages that may leak or uncleaned empty packages until the damage has been repaired.
Loader must ensure that necessary warning signs and labels are attached on the packages and equipment.
Loader must ensure that the container has the warning signs and labels after the container is loaded with dangerous goods.
Loader must comply with mixed loading restrictions by taking into account dangerous goods already in the vehicle.
Loader must inform the driver about the dangerous goods involved.
Loader shall never load a package the packaging of which is damaged and there is possibility of leakages.
Loader is also responsible for preventing smoking, lighting fire or keeping materials that may cause static electricity around the vehicle or in the loading area.
Filler shall ascertain prior to the filling of tanks that both they and their equipment are technically in a satisfactory condition.
Filler shall ascertain that the date of the next test for vehicles, tanks or equipment has not expired and only fill tanks with the dangerous goods authorized for carriage in those tanks.
Filler shall comply with mixed loading rules and requirements and observe the maximum permissible degree of filling or the maximum permissible volume for the substance being filled.
Filler shall, after filling the tank, ensure that all closures are in a closed position and that there is no leakage and that no dangerous residue of the filling substance adheres to the outside of the tanks;
Carrier shall ensure that the dangerous goods to be carried comply with international and domestic regulations.
Carrier is responsible for obtaining route plan certificate, CMR document, instructions and other necessary documents before carriage.
Carrier must check if the vehicle is suitable for carrying the goods.
Carrier must check if the vehicle approvals and inspections are within date.
Carrier is responsible for ensuring that the vehicles are loaded according to their respective loading capacities.
Carrier is obliged to inform the authorities immediately in case of accidents or other incidents during the journey. Carrier is also obliged to inform the ministry of transportation within 30 days after occurrence of such incident.
Carrier is responsible for ensuring that drivers are physically and mentally healthy. Carrier will be responsible for any consequences that may arise otherwise.
Consignee may not defer acceptance of the goods without compelling reasons.
Consignee shall have a suitable designated unloading area when the dangerous goods arrive at the destination.
Consignee is responsible for ensuring security and safety of unloading area.
If the unloading area is within a residential area, Consignee shall ensure unloading under supervision of relevant authorities.
D International Transport Company receives 15 tons of fuel oil to be carried from İzmir to France. No inspection is made after the product is loaded to the vehicle and the vehicle starts to burn during the journey. It is discovered after the incident that the fuel oil has leaked during filling operation and fuel oil contamination has not been cleaned.
Please evaluate the case, elaborate the necessary course of action and determine which party involved in transport is responsible for the incident.
•LOADING OF DANGEROUS GOODS
•STOWAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS
•RULES TO OBSERVE DURING TRANSPORT
Particular attention must be paid during loading and unloading dangerous goods, regardless of the means of transport.
Besides accidents, damaged cargo is also caused by mistakes made during loading and stowage stages.
Vibration during transport causes the goods to contact with and bump into each other, which causes damage to the goods.
Heavy goods put pressure on other goods underneath, which generates greater force.
Therefore, lighter and small volume goods must be placed on top while heavy and large volume goods are placed on the bottom.
During turns, a force equivalent to approximately seventy percent of the total weight of the goods carried by the vehicle is applied on the walls of containers on the direction of turning.
In addition, sudden acceleration or deceleration causes a force equivalent to fifty percent of the total weight of the cargo onto the front or the back of the vehicle.
These forces damage the cargo as well as the vehicle.
The possibility and severity of the damage on the cargo increases with the weight of the cargo.
For this reason, the goods carried on the vehicle must be secured to prevent movement.
Various fastening tools and equipment can be used for this purpose.
In case of palletized goods or boxes, fastening pallets and air cushions must be used.
Air cushions are placed between pallets and then filled with air.
In case of single articles, fastening stopper or straps can be used instead of fastening pallets or air cushions.
These tools fastens the load onto the ground and prevent any movement.
If it is likely for goods to slide onto other goods during carriage, suitable separators can be used between these goods.
In general, separators are used in case of different sizes or amounts of loads.
If there is a possibility of movement or falling of the goods, the risk must be minimized by using various suitable equipment.
These equipment include pretension straps.
Pretension straps secure the goods onto the vehicle or other goods.
Tie down straps are used to secure the goods on the ground.
These fasteners are used especially for single articles that are significantly smaller than the container they are stored in.
The goods can be fastened with cross or square lashing. This method allows use of two or more square lashing to secure the goods on the ground, depending on the length of the goods.
One of the most important points to remember to carry gases inside cylinders is that the heads of the cylinders where the valves are installed should not be placed along the direction of movement.
If the cargo tends to slide along the direction of movement of the vehicle, the cylinders can be damaged.
For this reason, the cylinders must be placed opposite of the direction of movement or facing the side walls of the vehicle.
In addition, the cylinders can be loaded vertically, facing heads of the cylinders upwards.
If there are sensitive or fragile articles within the cargo, these articles must be loaded as to prevent contact with other goods.
In addition to fastening, sensitive or fragile goods must be enclosed with protective bars.
D International Transport Company receives 5 tons of paint thinner to be carried from İzmir to France. The products are stacked on top of each other. When the cargo arrives at the unloading place, some of the drums fall outside when the doors of the vehicle are opened.